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Referencing Toolkit

APA : Multi-Media Materials

Basic Format to Reference Multi-Media Materials

The basics of a reference list entry for a commercially released film:

  • Primary contributor or contributors with their contribution identified in round brackets.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title (in italics).
  • Description of medium [in square brackets].
  • Place of publication.
  • Publisher.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example: De Heer, R. (Director), & Djigirr, P. (Co-Director). (2007). Ten canoes [Motion picture]. Collingwood, VIC: Madman.

Multi-media materials referencing

Please note:

  • Multi-Media materials include motion pictures, documentaries, radio shows, TV shows, music tracks, and static objects such as maps, artworks or photographs.
  • Some of the descriptions of medium are: [Motion Picture], [CD], [DVD], [Video recording], [Record], [Video], [Tape recording], [Cassette recording], [TV programme], [Radio programme], [Painting], [Photograph], [Microform] and [Demographic map].

Referencing Multi-Media Materials: Examples

Printable examples

Material type

In-text examples

Reference list examples

Video Recording

(Russell, 1995)

Russell, G. (Writer, Co-Producer & Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Co-Producer). (1995).Tackling bullies: An Australian perspective [Video recording]. Melbourne, VIC: Video Classroom.

Online or Streaming Video

(Zubrycki, 1991)

Zubrycki, T. (Producer & Director), & Chi, J. (Writer). (1991). Bran nue dae: A musical journey [Video]. Retrieved from


(Moore, 2003)

Moore, M. (Writer & Director). (2003). Bowling for Columbine. [DVD]. Melbourne, VIC: Umbrella Entertainment.

Radio Show

(Browning, 2006)

Browning, D. (Presenter). (2006, June 9). Black soccer heroes. In J.-P. Ortolan (Producer), Message Stick [Radio programme]. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. Sydney, NSW: ABC Radio.

TV Show from a series

(Masters, 2006)

Masters, C. (Presenter & Writer), & Johnson, P. (Director). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish [Television series episode]. In T. G. Alford (Executive Producer), Four Corners. Sydney, NSW: ABC Television.

Sound Recording

(Bolton, 1975)

(St. Laurance Chamber Choir, 2005)

Bolton, G. C. (Speaker). (1975). Towards an Australian environmental history [Cassette recording]. Perth, WA: Media Services, Murdoch University.

St. Laurance Chamber Choir (Performers), & McEwan, N. (Director). (2005).Commemoration, ritual and performance: the Iberian connection: medieval and renaissance music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir [CD]. Sydney, NSW: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney.

Music Track from an Album

(Yunupingu, 2011)

Yunupingu, G. G. (Performer). (2011). Gopuru. On Rrakala [CD]. Winnellie, NT: Skinnyfish.


(French, 1986)

French, L. A. (1986). Cognitive consequences of education: transfer of training in the elderly (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois) [Microform]. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International.

Image: for example a painting or photograph

(Duveneck, 1872)

(Duveneck, 1872)

(Caire, 1880)

Duveneck, F. (Artist). (1872). Whistling boy [Painting]. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Art Museum.

Duveneck, F. (Artist). (1872). Whistling boy [Image of painting]. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Art Museum. Retrieved from

Caire, N. J. (Photographer). (1880). Western entrance to Melbourne International Exhibition [Glass slide]. (Accession no. H3860). Melbourne, VIC: State Library of Victoria.


(Lewis County Geographic Information Services, 2002)

Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from census-pop-dens_2000.pdf