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Referencing Toolkit

Introduction

How do I know if I'm citing a table or a figure?

Tables

Tables are numerical values or text displayed in rows and columns.

Figures

Figures include graphs, charts, maps, drawings and photographs.


How do I cite them in my writing?

When including tables or figures in your work, please note:

  • All tables and figures must be referred to in the main body of the text.
  • Number all tables and figures in the order they first appear in the text.
  • Refer to them in the text by their number. 
Example:

As shown in Table 2...

or

As illustrated in Figure 3...


What needs to be attributed?

  • Each table or figure should be accompanied by a concise description of the contents, presented directly below the figure number and above the figure itself. The title is given in Title Case and italics.
  • When reproducing a figure or table from another source you must also include an attribution (Creative Commons or copyright), presented in a Note directly below the figure/table.  The attribution will follow any explanatory notes required for the figure.
  • An attribution for a figure reproduced from an Open Access journal article with a Creative Commons licence must include:
    • 'From' when reprinting the figure or 'Adapted from' when adapting
    • Title of article, in Title Case and double quotation marks " "
    • by Author(s). The first initial(s) followed by the surname
    • Year of publication
    • Journal title, in Title Case and italics
    • Volume (in italics) and issue number in (round brackets)
    • Page number of original figure. (Where there are no page numbers use Section headings and paragraph numbers)
    • DOI or URL in (round brackets)
    • Creative Commons licence

Examples

Figures

Reproducing Figures

If you reproduce a figure, credit the original source in full at the bottom of the reproduction. Cite the source in full in your reference list:

Example:

Figure 1. A credibility judgment is arrived at within the larger context of one's background, prior knowledge, assumptions and biases, as one performs a series of iterative assessments based on one's defined need, specific attributes of the source and rules of thumb that have worked successfully in the past. From "Evaluation techniques," by D. Cunningham, 2008, Annals of Psychiatry, 36, p. 35. Copyright 2008 by David Cunningham. Reprinted with permission.

Figure Reproduction

Reference List

Cunningham, D. (2008). Evaluation techniques. Annals of Psychiatry, 36(2), 24-45.


Adapting a Figure

If you adapt a figure, credit the original source in full at the bottom of the figure but add the words 'Adapted from' to indicate it has been changed by you, and cite the source in full in your reference list:

Example:

Figure 1. A credibility judgment is arrived at within the larger context of one's background, prior knowledge, assumptions and biases, as one makes interim decisions based on one's defined need, specific attributes of the source and rules of thumb that have worked successfully in the past. Adapted from "Evaluation techniques," by D. Cunningham, 2008, Annals of Psychiatry 36, p. 35. Copyright 2008 by David Cunningham. Adapted with permission.

Figure Adaptation

 


Reference List

Cunningham, D. (2008). Evaluation techniques. Annals of Psychiatry, 36(2), 24-45.


Discussing Figures

Follow a discussion of a figure viewed in another source (but not reproduced) with an in-text citation for the published source. Include the figure number as it appears in the published source. Cite the source in full in your reference list:

Example:

... evaluating the credibility of a source is shown as the interaction between one's defined need, specific attributes of the source, and rules of thumb which have worked previously when evaluating sources (Cunningham, 2008, p. 35, fig. 3).

Figure Discussion

Reference List

Cunningham, D. (2008). Evaluation techniques. Annals of Psychiatry36(2), 24-45.