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Referencing Toolkit


All sources of information such as quotes or borrowed ideas must be acknowledged in your essay.

In the Oxford style, a superscript number is inserted at the point in your essay where you cite another author's work. At the bottom of the same page repeat the superscript number then follow it with the full details, including the page number, of the author's work you are citing (see example below).

Start your footnote numbering at 1 and continue the sequence throughout your essay. Note the line at the bottom of the page that separates the text of your essay from the footnotes.

ibid and op cit.

It is now not common practice to use Latin abbreviations such as ibid. and op. cit. in Oxford.

If you are frequently citing a particular work in your essay, give the full details of the work in your first footnote and then in subsequent footnotes for this work use the shortened format of: author surname, abbreviated title (i.e. no subtitle), and the page number.

See Footnote 3 and Footnote 4 in the example below for the shortened footnote format.

Always include the full details of the work in your Reference List.


Footnote Example

... was by no means the first to make this classical connection. As Dr. Peter Londey says of Bean he 'turned for inspiration to the new, young radical democracy of Athens in the fifth century BC'.1 Yet an early report of the Gallipoli landing indicated that the strain of the battle caused discipline to break down and for many soldiers to 'lose they way'.In the intervening years public opinion has oscillated between these two points of view, remaining steadfastly 'pro ANZAC' until the end of the 1950s,3 then anti-war during the 1960s and 1970s, settling in the last decade to somewhere in the  middleground.4

P. Londey, 'A Possession Forever: Charles Bean, the Ancient Greeks, and Military Commemoration  in Australia', Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 53, no. 3, 2007, p. 345.

M. Lake and H. Reynolds, What's Wrong with ANZAC?: The Militisation of Australian History, Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 2010, p. 8.

Londey, 'A Possession Forever', p. 352.

Lake and Reynolds, What's Wrong with ANZAC?, p. 38.