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Referencing Toolkit

Direct Quotes

Under 40 Words

For direct quotes of less than 40 words, incorporate them into the text and enclose the quote with double quotation marks.

Webber (2018) concludes that “addressing the issue of school dropout not only affects the education system, but may also serve as a prevention effort for the welfare, mental health, and corrections systems” (p. 82).

"Addressing the issue of school dropout not only affects the education system, but may also serve as a prevention effort for the welfare, mental health, and corrections systems" (Webber, 2018, p. 82).


Over 40 Words

For direct quotes of 40 or more words start a new paragraph that is indented from the left. The entire quote should be double-spaced. Quotation marks are not required.

Example:

Others have contradicted this view:

Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event. 
           In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)

[Note: Use paragraph numbers if no page numbers are available.]

Paraphrasing

Although APA 7th does not require page numbers when paraphrasing another's work you may choose to include page numbers particularly when dealing with a lengthy or complex document. Alternatively, you can also cite the paragraph number for works without page numbers.

A number of holistic practices and dispositions can be applied when training or coaching athletes to increase the likelihood of athletes getting into 'the Zone' (Leskowitz, 2017, p. 324).

Using Ellipses

It is common when writing to use an ellipsis (3 fullstops in a row '…') to indicate where words have been omitted from a sentence. This is not permitted in quotes in APA.

Regardless of quotation length, do not insert an ellipsis at the beginning and/or end of a quotation unless the original source includes an ellipsis" (APA, 2020, p. 271).