"... black tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water” (Ruxton, 2016, p. 34).
Ruxton (2016) suggests "Unsweetened tea can be part of a recommended diet” (p. 40).
[Include page numbers for direct quotes.]
Ruxton, C. (2016). Tea: Hydration and other health benefits. Primary Health Care, 26(8), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.7748/phc.2016.e1162
[Where a DOI is available it must be included at the end of the reference, in the format https://doi.org/10.xxxx]
Journal Article: 2 authors
... connection and optimism (Aspy & Proeve, 2017), but others contend ...
Aspy and Proeve (2017) have found ...
[Cite both authors each time the reference occurs.]
Aspy, D. J., & Proeve, M. (2017). Mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation: Effects on connectedness to humanity and to the natural world. Psychological Reports, 120(1), 102-117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294116685867
Journal Article: 3 to 20 authors
... nurses must care as well as be competent (Geraghty et al., 2016).
Geraghty et al. (2016) suggest ...
[Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year..]
Geraghty, S., Lauva, M., & Oliver, K. (2016). Reconstructing compassion: Should it be taught as part of the curriculum? British Journal of Nursing, 25(15), 836-839. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2016.25.15.836
[Provide the names of all authors in the reference list.]
Journal Article: 21 or more authors
Research indicated that "lost sense of smell is a factor" (Khan et al., 2017, p. 344).
Khan et al. (2019) used criteria which included "reduced or lost sense of smell" (p. 344).
[Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year. Include page numbers for direct quotes.]
Khan, A., Huynh, T. M. T., Vandeplas, G., Joish, V. N., Mannent, L. P., Tomassen P., van Zele, T., Cardell, L.O., Arebro, J., Olze, H., Forster-Ruhrmann, U., Kowalski, M. L., Olszewska-Ziaber, A., Fokkens, W., van Drunen, C., Mullol, J., Alobid, I., Hellings, P.W., Hox, V., …Bachert, C. (2019). The GALEN rhinosinusitis cohort: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps affects health-related quality of life. Rhinology, 57(5), 343-351. https://doi.org/10.4193/Rhin19.158
[Provide the names of the first 19 authors, insert an ellipsis […] (but no ampersand [&]), then add the final author's name.]
Online Journal Article: No DOI assigned
Nairne and Wilkinson (2018) assert that "our relationship with ourselves is essential to how we each show up professionally" (p. 106).
"Our relationship with ourselves is essential to how we each show up professionally" (Nairne & Wilkinson, 2018, p. 106).
Nairne, D.C., & Wilkinson, H.(2018). What's love got to do with it? Vermont Connection, 39(1), 106-112
[An article retrieved from most library databases that does not have a DOI can be presented as though it were a print article.]
Print Journal Article: No DOI assigned
… Aussie Rules is the people’s game (Duncan, 2016)…
Duncan (2016) states that a sense of belonging…
Duncan, S. (2016). Voices from the grandstands: The attitudes of Australian football fans towards the concept of creating, developing and binding communities. Sporting Traditions, 33(2), 19-40.
[Note: Where a print journal article has a DOI you must include it, even though you did not access the electronic version.]]
Journal article: No author
... as was the case for most students ("The Pain of Being a Caffeine Freak," 2001).
... as in "The Pain of Being a Caffeine Freak" (2001) which reveals ...
[When a work has no identified author, cite in-text the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks if you are referring to the title of an article, chapter or web page.
Italicize the title if you are referring to the title of a periodical, book, brochure or a report, see Book: No Author.]
The pain of being a caffeine freak. (2001, October 6). New Scientist, 172(2311), 27.
[For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, give the year and the exact date of the publication (month or month and day), separated by a comma.]
Online Journal Article: No page numbers
... in all outcomes (Christensen et al., 2019).
Christensen et al, (2019) examine ...
[For direct quotations of online material without pagination, name the sections and paragraph number.]
The authors' "objective was to identify control journals that did not require data posting" (Christensen et al., 2019, Broad Analysis section, para. 4).
Christensen, G., Dafoe, A., Miguel, E., Moore, D. A., & Rose, A. K. (2019). A study of the impact of data sharing on article citations using journal policies as a natural experiment. PLoS ONE, 14(2), Article e0225883. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225883
[When you are referring to the ideas or words of an author who has been cited in another work. Also called 'secondary citation'.
Only recommended where the original work cannot be obtained.]
“…global movement toward a more naturalistic approach for childbirth” (Goldbas, 2012, as cited in Sullivan & McGuiness, 2015, p. 20).
Goldbas’s overview (2012, as cited in Sullivan & McGuiness, 2015) indicates…
[Provide names of both authors.]
[Where the year is known for the original work, include it as well as the year of the publication you read.]
Sullivan, D. H., & McGuiness, C. (2015). Natural labor pain management. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 30(2), 20-25. Retrieved from http://icea.org/
[Provide the full reference for the journal article that you actually read.]