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Referencing Toolkit


What is a DOI?

DOI stands for "digital object identifier". It is a unique, permanent identification code made up of numbers and letters that will take you straight to a document no matter where it is located on the Internet. They allow your teacher or marker to quickly check and find your references.

You will find them on ...

DOIs are allocated to certain digital resources such as:

  • academic journal articles
  • research reports
  • eBooks and eBook chapters
  • conference papers
  • government reports
  • data sets

You won't find them on ...

You will not find them on resources such as:

  • encyclopedia articles
  • websites
  • digital video or audio recordings
  • podcasts

For these resources you will need to cite the permanent URL instead.

Usage in APA7

Where a book, journal, report or other publication has a DOI, it must be included in the reference.

If a work has a both a DOI and a URL, cite the DOI only.

What do they look like?


All DOIs start with the number 10 and are followed by a period and then by the unique code representing the publication and the article, e.g. 10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30267-0


If you search for the above DOI you'll be directed to an article written by Yu et al. (2020).

APA7 Formatting

In the Reference List, DOIs must always be presented in a linked format as

If the work you are referencing has an unlinked or improperly linked DOI (e.g. link directing to, it will need to be changed to the proper linked format. You can do this by copying and pasting the DOI after


The above work by Yu et al. (2020) would be cited in the Reference List as:

Yu, P., Xu, R., Abramson, M. J., Li, S., & Guo, Y. (2020). Bushfires in Australia: a serious health emergency under climate change. The Lancet. Planetary health, 4(1), e7–e8.

It is a good idea to check that the link works correctly before submitting by copying and pasting it into your browser.

Where can I find it?

In Full-Text Articles

DOIs can be found either on the citation page (usually the first page) or in the header or footer.


DOI in linked format in the footer of a full-text article.


Reference List

Borrego, A. (2020). Measuring the impact of digital heritage collections using Google Scholar. Information Technology & Libraries, 39(2), 1–10.


DOI in linked format in the header of a full-text article.


Reference List

Szalontai, B. (2017). Solidarity within limits: Interkit and the evolution of the Soviet Bloc’s Indochina policy, 1967–1985. Cold War History, 17(4), 385-403.


DOI included in full-text article's citation details.


Reference List

Carter, T. A., & Veale, D. J. (2015). The timing of conflict violence: Hydraulic behavior in the Ugandan civil war. Conflict Management & Peace Science, 32(4), 370–394.

On Search Result Pages

DOIs can also appear in search results including in Search Across.


DOI shown in Search Across result record.


Reference List

Asplund, S.-B., & Pérez Prieto, H. (2018). Young working-class men do not read: or do they? Challenging the dominant discourse of reading. Gender & Education, 30(8), 1048–1064.

On Online Versions of Full-Text Articles

Some platforms offer online versions of full-text articles as well as PDF downloads; DOIs can be found on these pages as well.


Longform linked DOI shown on online full-text article.


Reference List

Nordvig, M., & Riede, F. (2018). Are there echoes of the AD 536 event in the Viking Ragnarok myth? A critical appraisal. Environment and History, 24(3), 303-324. httsp://