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Referencing Toolkit

Direct Quotes

Under 40 Words

Direct quotes under 30 words are included in the body of your essay enclosed in single inverted commas and followed immediately with a superscript number that refers to a footnote at the bottom of your page.

... in recent years this has become more apparent. As Jennifer Craik notes 'at best, an Australian sense of style is regarded as anything that is practical, informal and casual'.1

Over 40 Words

If a direct quote is 30 words or more it is called a block quote. As a rule block quotes should be used sparingly in your essay.

For block quotes, omit the quotation marks, start the quote as a new paragraph on a new line and indent the whole quote 1 cm from the left-hand margin of the page. Don't indent from the right-hand margin.

Introduce the quote with a colon.

As for a short quote, a superscript number is inserted immediately after the quote.

The Australian cultural renaissance of the post-war era is well documented but it is debatable whether the concept of an Australian fashion identity has permeated beyond our shores:

The idea of "fashion" as being a characteristic of Australian culture is frequently regarded as a non sequitur. Fashion is seen as belonging to far-flung cosmopolitan sites elsewhere while Australia is a far-flung site cut off from the trappings of civilization. Equally, Australia has long been regarded as being cut off from the "finer things" of civility, fashion, and good taste. At best, an Australian sense of style is regarded as anything that is practical, informal, and casual—T-shirts, practical footwear, moleskin trousers, and wide-brim hats; as an outfit thrown together without much thought.1