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Referencing Toolkit

APA : Patents & Standards

Basic Format to Reference Patents

The basics of a reference list entry for a patent retrieved online:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title of patent (in italics).
  • Patent number (In round brackets) e.g. (Australian Patent No. AU xxxxxxxxxx).
  • Name of Patent Office. e.g. IP Australia for Australian patents, European Patent Office for European patents.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 1.27cm.

Example: Bryant, S.J. (1998). European Patent No. EP GB2322334. Munich, Germany: European Patent Office

Reference list example - patents and standards

 

Further information:

  • For the in-text citation give the patent number and the issue date (not the application date).
  • In the reference list entry, include the inventor(s) to whom the patent is issued and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved.

Basic format to reference patents

Basic Format to Reference Patents

Printable examples

Material Type

In-text examples

Reference list examples

Patent: Online (Australian)

(Bevitt, 2018)

Bevitt, A. J. (2018). Litter, waste disposal and recycling app. (Australian Patent No. AU 2018100960). IP Australia. http://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do? applicationNo=2018100960

Patent: Online (International)

(European Patent No. EP 2178546 (A1), 2010)

Botura, G. C., Wilson, T. M., & Hartzler, B. (2018). A method to join Nano technology carbon allotrope heaters. (European Patent No. EP3331317). European Patent Office. https://worldwide.espacenet.com/patent/search/family/060661756/publication/EP3331317A1?q=EP3331317

The basics of a reference list entry for a standard:

The Basics of a Reference List Entry for a Standard:

The basics of a reference list entry for a standard retrieved online:

  • Author.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Standard title (in italics).
  • Standard number (in round brackets).
  • Publisher name.
  • Homepage URL of the publisher (as a direct URL is not available for standards).
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 1.27cm.

Example: Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand. (2018). Interior and workspace lighting part 2.5: Hospital and medical tasks (AS/NZS 1680.2.5-2018). SAI Global. https://www.saiglobal.com/

Referencing standards

Referencing archival materials: Examples

Referencing Standards: Examples

Printable examples

Material Type

In-text examples

Reference list examples

Standard: Retrieved from a Database

(Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand, 2018)

Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand. (2018). Interior and workspace lighting part 2.5: Hospital and medical tasks (AS/NZS 1680.2.5-2018). SAI Global. https://www.saiglobal.com/

Standard: Print

(Standards Australia, 2013)

Standards Australia. (2013). Gas installations. Part 1, general installations (AS/NZS 5601.1:2013). SAI Global.