Skip to main content

Referencing Toolkit

APA : Patents & Standards

Basic Format to Reference Patents

The basics of a reference list entry for a patent:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Patent number (in italics).
  • Place of publication.
  • Publisher.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example: Bryant, S.J. (1998). European Patent No. EP GB2322334. Munich, Germany: European Patent Office

Reference list example - patents and standards
 

Further information:

  • For the in-text citation give the patent number and the issue date (not the application date).
  • In the reference list entry, include the inventor(s) to whom the patent is issued and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved.

Basic format to reference patents

Basic Format to Reference Patents

Printable examples

Material Type

In-text examples

Reference list examples

Patent

(U.S. Patent No. 6,606,963, 2003)

Wynne, B. M. (2003). U.S. Patent No. 6,606,963. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

[The title of the patent is not included.]

Patent: Retrieved from a Database

(European Patent No. EP 2178546 (A1), 2010)

Oldani, M. D. (2010). European Patent No. EP 2178546 (A1). Retrieved from Scopus.

The basics of a reference list entry for a standard:

The Basics of a Reference List Entry for a Standard:

The basics of a reference list entry for an archival document:

  • Author.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Standard title (in italics).
  • Standard number.
  • Place of publication.
  • Publisher.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example: Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications (AS/NZS 3951.10:1994). Homebush, NSW: Author.

Referencing standards

Referencing archival materials: Examples

Referencing Standards: Examples

Printable examples

Material Type

In-text examples

Reference list examples

Standard: Retrieved from a Database

(Standards Australia, 2008)

Standards Australia. (2008). Personal flotation devices - General requirements (AS 4758.1-2008). Retrieved from Australian Standards Online.

Standard: Print

(Standards Australia, 1994)

Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications (AS 3951.10:1994). Homebush, NSW: Author.