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Referencing Toolkit

How to Reference

Basic Format to Reference Multimedia and Audiovisual Works

The basics of a reference list entry for film, television series, audio podcast, radio broadcast, painting or photograph:

  • Primary contributor or contributors with their contribution identified in round brackets (e.g. the Director, Producer, Artist).
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title (in italics).
  • Description of work [in square brackets].
  • Publisher (e.g. the production company).
  • URL (where relevant).
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 1.27cm.


Ireland, P. (Director). (2016). Pawno [Film]. Toothless Pictures.

Ireland, P. (Director). (2016). Pawno [Film]. Toothless Pictures.

Please note:

  • Audiovisual materials include films and documentaries, online streaming videos (such as YouTube videos), podcasts, TV shows and episodes, music albums and tracks, as well as static objects such as maps, artworks or photographs.
  • Some of the descriptions of medium are:
      [TV series] or [TV series episode]
      [Audio podcast] or [Video podcast]
  • These can be adapted to best suit the material you are citing, keeping in mind you should use the description that best enables your reader to locate the material.


Printable Handouts

Citation Examples

Material type

In-text examples

Reference list examples


The film Pawno, directed by Paul Ireland and written by Damian Hill (2016) celebrates multicultural Footscray.


... explores what it means to be highly sensitive (Harper 2015).

Ireland, P. (Director). (2016). Pawno [Film]. Toothless Pictures.

Harper, W. (Director). (2015). Sensitive: The untold story [Film]. Global Touch Group. 

TV Show or Series

(Overton, 2018)


The Good Doctor (Shore, 2017-present) follows the story of...

Overton, P. (Executive Producer). (2018, July 17) The truth about getting fit [TV documentary]. BBC TV. 

Shore. D. (Executive Producer). (2017-present). The good doctor [TV Series]. ABC Studios; Sony Pictures Television.

TV Episode from Series

Egan and Weyr (2019) portray Dr Shaun Murphy...

Egan, D. (Writer), & Weyr, T. N. (Director). (2019, October 14). Take my hand (Season 3, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), The good doctor. ABC Studios; Sony Pictures Television.

Ted Talk

...celebrating the music and rhythm of everyday language (Delgado Lopera, 2019).


Lera Boroditsky explores how the languages we speak shape our minds (TED, 2018).

Delgado Lopera, J. (2019, January). The poetry of everyday speech [Video]. TEDx Conferences.

When referencing a TED talk retrieved directly from the TED website; list the presenter of the talk as the author.

TED. (2018, May 3). Lera BoroditskyHow language shapes the way we think [Video]. YouTube.

"When retrieving a TED talk from YouTube; list TED as the author (as they are the 'uploader'). Be sure to mention the presenter's name in the body of your text (see left).
YouTube Video

…competing stresses of being a nursing student doing placements (Rojek, 2018).

Rojek, H. G. [Holley Gabrielle]. (2018, February 19). Stress and anxiety in nursing school: How to be in control [Video]. YouTube.

The person (or group) who uploaded the video is credited as the author.  If the uploader's real name is known, use it with the username following in [square brackets].
Podcast: Series

Radiolab (Abumrad & Krulwich, 2009-present) covers philosophical and scientific topics.

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2009-present). Radiolab [Audio podcast]. WNYC.

Podcast: Episode

... plants sense without a brain (Abumrad & Krulwich, 2018).

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2018, February 14). Smarty plants [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC.

Include the episode number, in (round brackets) following the episode title, if relevant.
Image: Creative Commons

In-text: Reproducing image:

Note. From Dementia Alzheimer's Dependent Forget Forgetfulness, by G. Altmann, n.d., Pixabay ( CC0 1.0.

The above citation is placed within the note under the reproduced image. The figure number and title are presented above the image. The Creative Commons license information is placed at the end of the citation within the note.

In-text: Referring to (but not reproducing) the image:

…visual representation of the experience of dementia (Altmann, n.d.).

Altmann, G. [geralt]. (n.d.). Dementia Alzheimer's dependent forget forgetfulness [Photograph]. Pixabay.

Image: From a Library database

In-text: Reproducing image:

Note. From Renal Arteries, by A. M. Gilroy, B. R. Macpherson, and L. M. Ross, 2008, Thieme Teaching Assistant Anatomy ( Copyright 2008 by Thieme.

Include a Note directly below the figure. The figure number and title appear directly above the image.

In text:  Referring to the reproduced image:

As shown in Figure 1 ……(Gilroy et al., 2008)

Figure 1 illustrates ….. (Gilroy et al., 2008)

When citing a figure from your paper refer to the figure number.

Gilroy, A. M., Macpherson, B. R., & Ross, L. M. (2008). Renal arteries [Diagram]. Thieme Teaching Assistant Anatomy.


(Lewis County Geographic Information Services, 2002)

Lewis County Geographic Information Services. (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census by block group: Lewis County, Washington [Map]. census-pop-dens_2000.pdf