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Referencing Toolkit

What is it?

All in-text references should be listed in the reference list at the end of your document.

The purpose of the reference list entry is to contain all the information that a reader of your work needs to follow-up on your sources. An important principle in referencing is to be consistent.

When compiling your APA Reference List, you should:

  • List references on a new page with a centred heading titled: References.
  • Include all your references, regardless of format, e.g. books, journal articles, online sources, in one alphabetical listing from A - Z.
  • Order entries alphabetically by surname of author(s).
  • If you've used multiple works by the same author, list works in order of publication (earliest to latest date).
  • List works with no author under the first significant word of the title.
  • Indent second and subsequent lines of each entry using a hanging line indent (1.27 cm spacing).
  • Use double spacing.
  • Note that all references in APA end with a full stop except when the reference ends with a URL or a DOI.

An example of a complete Reference List can be seen on our 'Sample Reference List' page.

Bibliography or Reference List?

The terms ‘Bibliography’ and ‘Reference List’ are often used interchangeably, however a reference list only includes items you have referenced in your assignment whereas, a bibliography also includes items used to prepare your assignment.

Always check with your teacher for which they require.

Examples

Books

A basic reference list entry for a book (print version) in APA must include:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year of publication of the book (in round brackets).
  • Book title (in italics).
  • Edition (in round brackets), if other than first edition.
  • Publisher.
  • DOI (where a book has a DOI this must be included, even if you are referring to a print book).
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented via a hanging line indent (1.27 cm spacing).

Example

Fletcher, D. P. (2018). Disruptors: Success strategies for women who break the mold. Entrepreneur Press.

Fletcher, D. P. (2018) Disruptors: Success strategies for women who break the mold. Entrepreneur Press.

Journal Articles

A basic reference list entry for a journal article in APA must include:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year of publication of the article (in round brackets).
  • Article title.
  • Journal title (in italics).
  • Volume of journal (in italics).
  • Issue of journal (no italics).
  • Page range of article.
  • DOI (presented as a hyperlink, for example https://doi.org/xxxxx).
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented via a hanging line indent (1.27 cm spacing).

Example: Ruxton, C. (2016). Tea: Hydration and other health benefits. Primary Health Care, 26(8), 34-42. doi:10.7748/phc.2016.e1162

Ruxton, C. (2016). Tea: Hydration and other health benefits. Primary Health Care, 26(8), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.7748/phc.2016.e1162